Diabetes gets a new shape: Its 5 not 2 diseases

Recent research has found that there can be 5 types of diabetes that can happen in one’s adult life. Previously, people knew that there were only 2 types of diabetes that could happen at that stage in one’s life. Scientists have come up with a new way of classifying this dreaded disease. They feel that with this fresh development there would be greater help in areas such as treatment and diagnosing diabetes symptoms. It would also be possible for them to predict in a more correct way if diabetes has become chronic for a person or not.

Precision medicine

Till date, we have always thought that therEndocrinologye were two major types of diabetes – Type II diabetes and type I diabetes. However, these revelations have changed all that. In fact, these findings can be said to be at par with a trend known as precision medicine. Precision medicine basically accounts for differences between individuals when it comes to manage and treat diseases. Normally, someone who needs blood transfusion should get the right type of blood. Similarly, people who suffer from various kinds of diabetes need specialized treatments for their condition. The study was published in a medical journal named The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology.

What does the study say?

The study has stated that scientists have found out various kinds of microbiome that are absolutely different from each other. Microbiome is basically the bacterial ecosystem that can be found in the digestive tracts of human beings. This is an important discovery when it comes to diabetes diagnosis. It has been seen that these microbiome might react in different ways to the same medicines. This means that they may become effective to various degrees. This is however easily the first step taken to treat diabetes in a personalized way.

What are the scientists saying?

This is the opinion of Leif Groop, a senior author of the research in question. Groop works as an endocrinologist at the Lund University of Sweden. The scientist has also stated that the new classification represents a paradigm shift in the way that this disease is viewed. Normally, people suffering from diabetes suffer from too much of glucose in their blood. It usually happens because of the kind of food that they eat. It is said that around 420 million people around the world are suffering from this disease. It is expected that by 2045 this number would go up to 629 million. This data has been provided by the International Diabetes Foundation.

The present kinds of diabetes

At present, there are 2 major kinds of diabetes – Type I and Type II. Type 1 is normally diagnosed during childhood. It makes 10 per cent of the cases of diabetes around the world. In this case, the body simply cannot produce any insulin at all. Insulin is the hormone that helps to regulate the levels of blood sugar in one’s body. In type II diabetes the body generates insulin, however, it is not sufficient enough. This means that sugar in one’s blood remains on the higher side.

The new types

Researchers evaluated 13270 people in the range of 18-97 years with new onset diabetes and classified them into five groups on the basis of insulin resistance, insulin secretion, age, blood glucose level and the onset of illness. Out of the five groups three constitute serious forms and two constitute milder forms of disease.

One of the severe types, which shows insulin resistance was at higher risk of developing kidney disease. Groop mentioned that this group benefits from the new diagnostics and consists of most incorrectly treated one. The other two groups consists of young patients with insulin deficiency. Among this one of the group is basically the original Type -1 diabetes.

The two other milder forms consists of 40% of the patients having diabetes related to advance age. Lead author Emma Ahlqvist of Lund University said that this stratification will enable earlier treatment and complication prevention in patients who are at risk.

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